Our technologies operate on the principle of thermal disintegration of substances - these thermal processes are in practice represented by technologies that affect materials and wastes with a temperature exceeding the boundary of chemical stability of these materials and wastes. This temperature causes splitting of high-molecular organic substances into simpler gas and liquid organic substances, or produces solid organic residue. The technology itself involves a reductive thermal process, where organic substances of the material are thermally disintegrated under exclusion of the oxidation agent, or more precisely media containing oxygen. The basic principle of the process lies in heating an organic material in a retort to a level exceeding the thermal stability boundary, thus splitting macromolecular compositions into stable low-molecular products and solid residue. The actual process has three phases.
First phase (drying): The drying phase involves an endothermic process, i.e. a process where the heat is consumed. This phase occurs at temperatures of up to 200°C, where water is physically split off and water vapour is produced.
Second phase (dry distillation): Dry distillation can be described as heating of the input material to such temperatures, in which lateral chains are split off from high-molecule organic substances, thus producing simpler gaseous and liquid organic products and solid carbonic residue. This phase proceeds in retorts under the temperatures ranging from 200 to 500°C.
Third phase (splitting): In this phase, dry-distilled products, i.e. gaseous and liquid organic substances, are split and further transformed. The splitting proceeds at temperatures ranging from 500 to 1,200°C, where stable gases such as H2,CH4,CO start to emerge from the carbon and liquid organic substances.